Perspektif Kritis Jamal Khashoggi dalam artikel Washington Post terhadap kebijakan Arab Saudi

Authors

  • Rahmat Firnanda Ar-Raniry State Islamic University

Keywords:

Khasoggi,, Saudi,, Kebijakan,, jurnalistik

Abstract

A critical perspective of Jamal Khashoggi towards the Saudi Arabia policy is part of the free expression which Khashoggi expected can be implemented in his homeland Saudi. The dispute in defining a narration between the Saudi government and Khashoggi toward to some policy Saudi took caused of his departure to Washington DC and started to voice his critics and opinions by writing articles in Washington Post from 2017 until 2018. The issues which he touched on were about free expression, the Yemen war, corruption, and Ikhwanul Muslimin. This paper attempts to understand the problem Saudi faces which he wants to criticize on Saudi moves whether it is a domestic or foreign policy through qualitative narrative. This paper attempts to answer what are the big issues Khashoggi tries to deliver in the Washington Post articles he wrote. It can be found there are many detailed issues which Khashoggi has a different opinion to what Saudi has done under MBS. The reform that Saudi promise only applied to infrastructure. Ironically it is not followed by reform in free expression, free speech, and political rights for Saudi citizens as equality before the law.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Almagor, Raphael Cohen. “Speech, Media, and Ethics”, NewYork: Palgrave, 2001.

Almajdoub, Sumaya. “Saudi Arabia and the Regionalization of Yemen’s Conflict”, George Washington University (2016) : 10-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Alshalan, Abdulmajeed. “Corrupt Practices in Saudi Arabia: An Analysis of the Legal and the Inflfluence of Social Factors”, PhD diss,. Indiana University, 2017.

Arabia, Saudi, Library of Congress – Federal Research Division, (2006) : 28-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Athanasoulia, Stella. “From ‘Soft’ to ‘Hard’ to ‘Moderate’: Islam in the Dilemmas of Post-2011 Saudi Foreign Policy”, IREMAM, (2020): 18-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Cabe, Delia, and Kirsten Lundberg, Covert Activity: the Washington Post, Edward Snowden and the National Security Agency, Accessed March 5, 2021. https://ccnmtl.columbia.edu/projects/caseconsortium/casestudies/147/casestudy/www/layout/case_id_147

Haines, Avril. Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Assessing the Saudi Government's Role in the Killing of Jamal K.hashoggi, Washington DC: Office of the Director of National Intelligence, (2021)

Hamdane, Nahla Yassine and Frederic S. Pearson, Arab Approaches to Conflict Resolution, New York: Routledge, 2014.

Henderson, Simon. “Saudi Arabia's 'Anti-Corruption' Purge”, The Washington Institute, November 6, 2017

Human Right Watch, World Report 2021: Event of 2020 (2021) : 761-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia wasn’t always this repressive. Now it’s unbearable”, The Washington Post, September 18, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/09/18/saudi-arabia-wasnt-always-this-repressive-now-its-unbearable/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia’s crown prince wants to ‘crush extremists.’ But he’s punishing the wrong people”, The Washington Post, November 1, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/10/31/saudi-arabias-crown-prince-wants-to-crush-extremists-but-hes-punishing-the-wrong-people/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “After more crackdowns, it's clear Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman is acting like Putin”, The Washington Post, November 6, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/11/05/saudi-arabias-crown-prince-is-acting-like-putin/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia is creating a total mess in Lebanon” , The Washington Post, November 14, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/11/13/saudi-arabia-is-creating-a-total-mess-in-lebanon/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia has devastated Yemen — but a lesson from 1965 can help fix the mess”, The Washington Post, November 23, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/11/22/saudi-arabia-has-devastated-yemen-but-a-lesson-from-1965-can-help-fix-the-mess/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “With Ali Abdullah Saleh's death, Saudi Arabia is paying the price for betraying Yemen”, The Washington Post, December 6, 2017. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2017/12/05/with-ali-abdullah-salehs-death-saudi-arabia-is-paying-the-price-for-betraying-the-arab-spring/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia's Mohammed Bin Salman has reason to worry about Iran's protests”, The Washington Post, January 4, 2018, Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/01/03/why-saudi-arabias-crown-prince-should-be-worried-about-irans-protests/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “What Saudi Arabia could learn from South Korea about fighting corruption”, The Washington Post, January 9, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/01/08/what-saudi-arabia-could-learn-from-south-korea-about-fighting-corruption/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia’s crown prince already controlled the nation’s media. Now he’s squeezing it even further”, The Washington Post, February 8, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/02/07/saudi-arabias-crown-prince-already-controlled-the-nations-media-now-hes-squeezing-it-even-further/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “What Saudi Arabia crown prince Mohammed bin Salman can learn from Queen Elizabeth II”, The Washington Post, March 1, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/02/28/what-saudi-arabias-crown-prince-can-learn-from-queen-elizabeth-ii/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Why Saudi Arabia’s crown prince should visit Detroit”, The Washington Post, March 21, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/03/20/why-saudi-arabias-crown-prince-should-visit-detroit/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “By blaming 1979 for Saudi Arabia’s problems, the crown prince is peddling revisionist history”, The Washington Post, April 4, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/04/03/by-blaming-1979-for-saudi-arabias-problems-the-crown-prince-is-peddling-revisionist-history/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “What Saudi Arabia can learn from ‘Black Panther’ ”, The Washington Post, March 18, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/04/17/what-saudi-arabia-can-learn-from-black-panther/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “After the latest wave of arrests, Saudi Arabia's reformers now face a terrible choice”, The Washington Post, May 22, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/05/21/saudi-arabias-reformers-now-face-a-terrible-choice/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “What Trump gets right about Saudi Arabia and Iran”, The Washington Post, June 1, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/06/12/what-trump-gets-right-about-saudi-arabia-and-iran/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia’s women can finally drive. But the crown prince needs to do much more.”, The Washington Post, June 26, 2018. Accessed 4 Februari, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/06/25/saudi-arabias-women-can-finally-drive-but-the-crown-prince-needs-to-do-much-more/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “It’s time to divide Syria”, The Washington Post, July 4, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/07/03/its-time-to-divide-syria/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia cannot afford to pick fights with Canada”, The Washington Post, August 8, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/08/07/saudi-arabia-cannot-afford-to-pick-fights-with-canada/

Khashoggi, Jamal. “The U.S. is wrong about the Muslim Brotherhood — and the Arab world is suffering for it”, The Washington Post, August 29, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/08/28/the-u-s-is-wrong-about-the-muslim-brotherhood-and-the-arab-world-is-suffering-for-it/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “Saudi Arabia’s crown prince must restore dignity to his country — by ending Yemen’s cruel war”, The Washington Post, September 12, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/global-opinions/wp/2018/09/11/saudi-arabias-crown-prince-must-restore-dignity-to-his-country-by-ending-yemens-cruel-war/.

Khashoggi, Jamal. “What the Arab world needs most is free expression”, The Washington Post, October 18, 2018. Accessed 4 February, 2021, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/global-opinions/jamal-khashoggi-what-the-arab-world-needs-most-is-free-expression/2018/10/17/adfc8c44-d21d-11e8-8c22-fa2ef74bd6d6_story.html.

Kinninmont, Jane. “Political Change in Saudi Arabia”, Geographical Overview. Accessed 4 Maret, 2021.

Le Ruth, Phillippe and Anthony Bellanger. “International Federation of Journalists, International Press Centre,” Brussels, Accessed March 3, 2021, httpswww.ifj.orgfileadminuser_uploadDraft_Convention_Journalists_E.pdf.

Lipp, Andrew. “The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring divergent views in Saudi Arabia and Qatar”, PhD diss., Iowa State University, 2019.

M. Sharp, Jeremy. “Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention.” Congressional Research Service (2020) : 22-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

O'Donnell, Norah. 2019: MBS denies involvement in Khashoggi killing, but takes "full responsibility", YouTube, uploaded by 60 Minutes, 27 Feb. 2021, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvYDy9bH2CQ. Accessed 10 March 2021.

Oguz, Alpaslan, Edebali Murat Akca and Muhammed Lütfi Turkcan, Murder In Consulate The Killing of Jamal Khashoggi, TRT World Research Centre, October, (2018) : 22-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Omar, Ihab “Khashoggi’Death And Its Repercussions On The Saudi Position With Turkey”, ORSAM-Ortadoğu Araştırmaları Merkezi 224 (2019) : 16-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Pauly, John J. “Is Journalism Interested in Resolution, or Only inConflict?”, Marquette Law Review 93 Issue 1: 13 (2009) : 23-7. Accessed February3,2021http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=mulr_conferences.

Park, Susan. “The United Nations Human Rights Council's Resolution on Protection of Freedom of Expression on the Internet as a First Step in Protecting Human Rights Online,” North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation 4 (2013): 1131. Accessed March 2, 2021, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/151516557.pdf

Rahman, Kaunain. “An overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Saudi Arabia”, Transparency International, (2020) : 24-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

Rugman, Jonathan. The Killing In The Consulate, London: Simon Schuster, 2020.

Saudi Arabia: Counter Terror Court Target Activist”, ABA Center for Human Rights, (2019) : 20-1. Accessed March 4, 2021.

“The Forgotten War.” The Ongoing Disaster In Yemen”, The Soufan Center (2018) : 41-5. Accessed March 4, 2021.

“The Saudi Crown Prince Thinks He Can Transform the Middle East. Should We Believe Him?”, Time.com, Accessed 5 March, 2021 https://time.com/longform/mohammed-bin-salman/

Tønnessen, Liv. “Women’s Activism in Saudi Arabia”, CHR Michelsen Institute (2016) : 25-1. Accessed March 5, 2021.

VISION 2030 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (2021) : 84-1. Accessed March 11, 2021.

Wagner, Ben. Global Free Expression-Governing the Boundaries of Internet Content, Springer, 2016.

Published

2021-04-19

How to Cite

Firnanda, R. (2021). Perspektif Kritis Jamal Khashoggi dalam artikel Washington Post terhadap kebijakan Arab Saudi. Kalam: Jurnal Agama Dan Sosial Humaniora, 8(2), 61-89. Retrieved from http://journal.lsamaaceh.com/index.php/kalam/article/view/93